New and Updated Recommendations from Medscape's Clinical Reference
advertisement Herpes zoster (shingles) is 1 of 2 distinctive manifestations of human infection with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Read more about the pathophysiology and frequency of herpes zoster.
Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and human papillomavirus (HPV) may help individualize treatment options for squamous cell carcinoma.
Nicholas John Bennett, MBBCh, PhD Dr. Nicholas Bennett is a resident physician in the department of pediatrics at SUNY Upstate Medical University and is one of the rising stars at eMedicine. He has developed software that helps scientific investigators analyze raw data and developed and teaches a novel communication skills curriculum in pediatrics. At eMedicine, Dr. Bennett is an author in our Infectious Diseases and Pediatrics: General Medicine sections. Energetic, thorough, and always dependable, he recently worked with one of our senior coauthors to submit a comprehensive topic that will be the core of our new HIV section. Our thanks to Dr. Bennett for his enthusiastic dedication to eMedicine.
Dr. Bennett recently coauthored the Infectious Diseases article Avian Influenza.
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit used in Japan has been used to detect serum IgA antibody to MAC-specific glycopeptidolipid core antigen. This could be useful for serodiagnosis of MAC pulmonary infection. Sensitivity and specificity of this EIA kit were reported as 84% and 100%, respectively.
Hepatocellular carcinoma, with its link to the hepatitis C epidemic, represents the fastest growing cause of cancer mortality overall and the second fastest growing cause of cancer deaths. Over the past 20 years, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has more than doubled.
With an understanding of the technical aspects specific to cardiac MRI, the imager should be able to optimize image quality to aid in the diagnosis and management of these and other cardiovascular diseases.
A recent Hungarian study indicates that vertical suspension of patients in a warm-water bath, with weight applied to their lower limbs, may, in combination with physical therapy, be an effective treatment for lumbar and cervical diskopathy.
In patients with os odontoideum, there are 2 types of management: surveillance and operative stabilization. In patients with more severe symptoms of spinal instability, neurologic involvement, or intractable pain, several surgical options are described in detail, such as onlay fusion, wiring and fusion, screw fixation, and resection of the os fragment.
Controversy exists regarding NSAIDs and bone healing, and further investigation is warranted to fully understand which patients are at highest risk for delayed healing and complications produced by NSAIDs.
On radiographs, pulmonary hypoplasia is usually unilateral, volume of the chest is reduced on the affected side, and the affected lung is small. Antenatal ultrasound and MRI are also being increasingly used to detect pulmonary hypoplasia.
Although promising, the role of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning in the diagnosis of Riedel thyroiditis (RT) has not yet been established. However, studies indicate that in patients with RT, fluorodeoxyglucose-PET scanning demonstrates increased glucose metabolism in affected thyroids.
Many recombinant enzyme-replacement regimens have been developed to treat several lysosomal storage diseases. The latest of these proteins to be produced is idursulfase, the first pharmacologic agent to be approved for the treatment of Hunter syndrome.
JAK2 mutations activate the JAK-STAT pathway in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocytosis and are linked to myelofibrosis development. The authors hypothesized that a deregulation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) protein system in these cases could produce this activation.